IDENTIFIKASI SITUS ARKEOLOGI BAWAH AIR TINGGALAN PERANG DUNIA II DI PERAIRAN TELUK AMBON

Wisnu A. Gemilang, Nia N.H Ridwan, Ulung J. Wisha

Abstract


 Abstract. City of Ambon holds the evidence of colonialism as part of World War II history. Various maritime cultural activities contain historical data that can reconstruct the history of Indonesia. One example is Duke of Sparta (SS Aquila) shipwreck, located in Ambon Bay, that is well-known by local and international divers. However, underwater cultural heritage has not optimally managed, even suffers from thievery. Since underwater cultural heritage in Ambon Bay is significant to support national and international interests, this study aims to identify and record underwater cultural heritage in Ambon Bay by using Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and direct observation through diving survey. This preliminary study was conducted as the first stage of underwater cultural heritage preservation effort. The result shows findings of archaeological remains of shipwrecks and aircrafts. Some parts were incomplete, covered by coral ecosystem, and become fish habitat. High level of sedimentation has a role in disrupting the recent condition as most of the wreckages are now covered by sediment materials. Thus, preservation and protection efforts are necessary to be well-managed by central and local governments.

 

Keywords: Underwater archaeology, World War II, Ambon Bay, Side Scan Sonar

 

Abstrak. Kota Ambon mempunyai sejarah dalam Perang Dunia II yang menyimpan bukti-bukti sejarah kolonialisme. Berbagai aktivitas budaya maritim telah meninggalkan data yang melimpah untuk merekonstruksi sejarah bangsa ini. Di Perairan Teluk Ambon terdapat situs kapal kargo Duke of Sparta (SS Aquila) yang sangat dikenal oleh penyelam lokal maupun mancanegara. Permasalahan pada sisi lain sumber daya tinggalan budaya bawah air belum optimal dimanfaatkan, bahkan seringkali diambil secara ilegal. Mengingat bahwa peninggalan arkeologi bawah air di Indonesia khususnya perairan Ambon tidak hanya memiliki signifikansi nasional, tapi juga regional bahkan internasional. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi dan inventarisasi tinggalan budaya arkeologi bawah laut Ambon menggunakan Side Scan Sonar (SSS) serta pengamatan secara langsung (penyelaman). Kegiatan ini sebagai upaya awal perlindungan terhadap tinggalan tersebut. Hasil pengamatan memperlihatkan beberapa temuan tinggalan arkeologi bawah laut berupa kapal tenggelam SS Aquila, SS Victoria serta situs pesawat. Beberapa bagian situs telihat sudah tidak utuh dan tertutupi oleh ekosistem karang dan dihuni oleh ikan-ikan. Tingginya tingkat sedimentasi berpengaruh terhadap keberadaan situs tersebut, sehingga beberapa bagian situs tertimbun material sedimen. Upaya penyelamatan dan perlindungan perlu dilakukan lebih lanjut baik oleh pemerintah pusat maupun daerah.

 

Kata kunci: Arkeologi Bawah Air, Perang Dunia II, Teluk Ambon, Side Scan Sonar


Keywords


Arkeologi Bawah Air, Perang Dunia II, Teluk Ambon, Side Scan Sonar

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kpt.v28i1.459
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