Pañji and Candrakirana Lost in Separation – Three Ancient East Javanese Sculptures.

Lydia Kieven

Abstract


Pañji dan Candrakirana, Hilang karena Terpisah – Tiga Arca Kuno Periode Jawa Timur. Makalah ini membahas tiga arca, satu arca lelaki dan dua arca perempuan, yang berasal dari periode Jawa Timur (sekitar 1450 M). Arca lelaki yang biasa ditemukenali sebagai tokoh mitologis, yaitu Raden Pañji, dalam penggambaran aslinya didampingi oleh arca yang menggambarkan Putri Candrakirana sebagai pasangannya. Arca ini sudah hilang. Sebuah arca perempuan lain yang masih ada juga diyakini sebagai representasi Candrakirana. Berdasarkan metode ikonologi yang digunakan di dalam penelitian ini, tulisan ini membahas ikonografi, gaya dan perbandingan penggambaran tiga figur ini, serta mendiskusikan tempat pembuatan, asal-usulnya, dan kisah hidupnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa setidaknya terdapat dua pasang penggambaran Pañji dan Candrakirana, dan kemungkinan masih banyak lagi yang belum ditemukenali. Pemujaan Pañji dan Candrakirana sebagai semi-manusia dan semi-dewa adalah bagian religiusitas spesifik dalam zaman Majapahit

 

Abstract. This paper discusses three sculptures, a male and two female ones, dating to the East Javanese period (c. 1450 AD). The male image which is commonly identified as the depiction of the mythological Prince Pañji, originally was accompanied by a statue depicting his female counterpart Princess Candrakirana, this statue being lost today. Another female statue, still extant today, is argued to represent another depiction of Candrakirana. Based on the method of iconology, this study investigates the iconography, style, and the comparison of these images, and it raises questions of workshops, provenance and life history. The conclusion suggests the existence of at least two pairs of sculptures depicting Pañji and Candrakirana, and possibly a larger – so far – unknown number. The cult of worshipping Pañji and Candrakirana as semi-divine deities makes part of the specific religiosity during the Majapahit time.


Keywords


Jawa Timur, Majapahit, Pañji, Candrakirana

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brandes, J.L.A. (1902). “Driemandelijksch rapport over het 2e kwartaal 1902“, ROC (Rapporten van den Commissie in Nederlandsch-Indie voor Oudheidkundig Onderzoek op Java en Madoera): 3-15.

Broekveldt, F.L. 1904. “Ontdekking van Selokelir; Mededeeling Aan Het Bataviaasch Genootschap.” In NBG (Notulen van de Bataviaasch Genootschap): Bijlage III: XXIII-XXVII.

Campbell, S. 2013. Collecting Balinese Art: the Forge Collection of Balinese Paintings at the Australian Museum in Sydney. PhD Thesis. University of Sydney.

Duijker, M. 2010. The Worship of Bhima; The Representations of Bhima on Java during the Majapahit Period. Amstelveen: Eon Pers.

Fontein, J. Soekmono, and Satyawati Suleiman. 1971. Ancient Indonesian Art of the Central and Eastern Javanese Periods. New York: Asia Society.

Forge, A. 1978. Balinese Traditional Paintings. Sydney: Australian Museum.

Friederich, R. 1850. “Javaansche Oudheden.” In Verslag van den Staat der werkzaamheden van het Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen 1849-1850, Chapter 14. edited by S.A Buddhing.

Hardiati, Endang Sri and Pieter ter Keurs. 2005. Indonesia The Discovery of the Past. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers.

Galestin, Th. P. 1959. Iconografie van Semar. Leiden: Brill.

Groeneveldt, W.P. 1887. Catalogus der Archeologische Verzameling van he Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten En Wetenschappen. Batavia: Albrecht.

Holt, C. 1972. Art in Indonesia; Continuity and Change. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.

Hunter, Th. 2007. “The Body of the King; Reappraising Singhasari Period Syncretism.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 38(1): 27–53.

Karlström, A. 2009. Preserving Impermanence. The Creation of Heritage in Vientiane, Laos. Uppsala: Uppsala Universiteit.

Kieven, L. 2013. Following the Cap-figure in Majapahit Temple Reliefs. A New Look at the Religious Function of East Javanese Temples, 14th and 15th Centuries. Leiden: Brill Publisher.

--------. 2014a. Menelusuri Figur Bertopi dalam Relief Candi Zaman Majapahit. Pandangan Baru Terhadap Fungsi Religius Candi-Candi Periode Jawa Timur Abad Ke-14 dan ke-15. Jakarta: EFEO dan Gramedia Kepustakaan Populer. [Translation of Kieven 2013].

--------. 2014b “Pañji dan Candrakirana.” In Arca: Sepilihan Teks dan Foto Tentang Seni Arca Klasik, edited by Kris Budiman. Yogyakarta: Sangkring Art Space.

Klokke, M.J. 1994. “The so-Called Portrait Statues in East Javanese Art.” In Ancient Indonesian Sculpture, edited by Klokke, M.J. and P. Lunsingh Scheurleer Leiden: KITLV.

--------. 1998. “Deified Couples and Meditation; On the Iconography of the so-called Portrait Statues in Ancient Javanese Art.” In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1994, edited by P.-Y. Manguin, 171–179. Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.

Krom, N.J. 1923. Inleiding tot de Hindoe- Javaansche Kunst. Three vols. ‘s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff.

Lowenthal, D. 2011. The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Revised edition of 1985].48

Lunsingh Scheurleer, P. 2000. “Skulls, Fangs and Serpents: A New Development in East Javanese Iconography.” In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1998, edited by W. Lobo and S. Reimann, 189–204. Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.

Munandar, Agus Aris. 1990. Kegiatan Keagamaan di Pawitra. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

--------. 2009. Gajah Mada: Kuasa, Cita-Cita dan Prahara. Bogor: Akademia.

NBG (Notulen van de Bataviaasch Genootschap). 1904. lihat Broekveldt 1904.

NBG (Notulen van de Bataviaasch Genootschap). 1910. Bijlage III: XXIII-XLIII.

O.V. (Oudheidkundig Verslag). 1914. Vol. 4: 203-4: Notes on Mount Penanggungan.

O.V. (Oudheidkundig Verslag). 1915. Vol. 1: 2-6: Notes on Candi Selokelir.

O.V. (Oudheidkundig Verslag). 1936. 17: Notes on the Pañji Image from Kunjoro.

Panofsky, E. 1955. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Later edition: Chicago University of Chicago Press 1982. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Poerbatjaraka, R.M.Ng. 1968. Tjerita Pandji dalam Perbandingan. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.

Robson, S.O. 1971. Wangbang Wideya; A Javanese Pañji Romance. The Hague: Nijhoff.

Romondt, V.R. van. 1951. Peninggalan-peninggalan Purbakala di Gunung Penanggungan. Jakarta: Dinas Purbakala Republik Indonesia.

Rouffaer, G.P. 1909. NBG 47:180-2. [Laporan tentang prasasti Calcutta].

Santiko, Hariani. 1990. “Kehidupan Beragama Golongan Rsi di Jawa.” In Monumen; Karya Persembahan untuk Prof. Dr. Soekmono, edited by Sedyawati, Edi, et al., 156–71. Depok: Fakultas Sastra Universitas Indonesia.

--------. 1998. “Religious Life of Rsis in the Majapahit Era.” In Southeast Asian Archaeology 1996, edited by Klokke, M.J. and Th. De Bruijn, 237-47. Hull: Centre for South-East Asian Studies, University of Hull.

Sidomulyo, Hadi (alias Nigel Bullough). 2007. Mengenal Situs Purbakala di Gunung Penanggungan. Surabaya: Universitas Surabaya.

Suleiman, Satyawati. 1978. The Pendopo Terrace of Panataran. Jakarta: Proyek Pelita Pembinaan Kepurbakalaan dan Peninggalan Nasional.

Stutterheim, W.F. 1935. “Enkele Interessante Reliefs van Oost-Java.” Djawa 15: 130– 44.

--------. 1936.a “Een Pandji-Kop uit de 15e Eeuw.” Maandblad voor Beeldende Kunsten Jg. 13: 329–35.

--------. 1936.b “Voorloopig Bericht omtrent Enkele Vondsten op den Penanggoengan in 1935.” Djawa 16: 194–200.

--------. 1936.c. “De Dateering van eeinige Oost-Javaansche Beeldengroepen.” TBG (Tijdschrift van de Bataviaasch Genootschap) 76: 249-320.

--------. 1938. The Exploration of Mount Penanggungan, Eastern Java. Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology for the Year 1936. Vol. XI. Leiden: Brill.

--------. 1956. “An Ancient Javanese Bhima Cult.” In Studies in Indonesian Archaeology, 104–43. Leiden: KITLV. [Translation of the Dutch version in Djawa XV 1935: 37-64].

Zoetmulder, P.J. 1974. Kalangwan; A Survey of Old Javanese Literature. The Hague: Nijhoff.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/amt.v34i1.74
Article Metrics

Abstract views: 261 | PDF views: 275 | Total views: 536




Copyright (c) 2016 AMERTA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

AMERTA INDEXED BY:

Copyright of AMERTA (e-ISSN 2549-8908 p-ISSN 0215-1324). Powered by OJS. ©Designed by Mujab.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.