Ragam Hias Ular-Naga di Tempat Sakral Periode Jawa Timur*

Hariani Santiko

Abstract


Abstract. Naga-Snake Ornaments at Sacred Places in East Java Period. Among those archaeological remains from Hindu-Buddhist in East Java period, dated from 8th to 16th centuries, was nagasnake
ornament (snake with physical characteristic of a dragon) whether it stands alone or with a garuḍa figure. This ornament was found in temples, sacred bathing sites, and meditation caves. This ornament has not been found in earlier Hindu-Buddhist period in Central Java (early 6th to early 10th centuries). In order to understand the ideas behind this ornament selection, a historical-archaeology method was used based on artefactual and textual data, such as old manuscripts or inscriptions. East-Javanese śilpins used garuḍa and naga snake ornaments to manifest the story of Samudramanthana (Amŗtamanthana) and the story of Garudeya. Both stories tell the churning of the Ksirārnawa by the śura and aśura to get the amŗta (the holy water). This ornament can be found at Jalatunda bathing
site, Kidal temple, and Jabung temple. The preference to use Samudramanthana and Garudeya stories was related with the mythology of the mountain in Hinduism, which is believed as a “ladder” to Gods’ place. A temple is a miniature of Mahameru, the location of amŗta, guarded by the dragon-snake.

 

Abstrak. Tinggalan Arkeologi dari masa Hindu-Buddha di Jawa Timur (abad ke-10-16), di antaranya berupa ragam hias ular-naga (ular dengan ciri-ciri fisik naga) yang digambarkan sendiri, maupun bersama tokoh garuḍa. Ragam hias ular-naga ini ditemukan di kompleks percandian, pemandian suci (patirthan), dan di gua-gua pertapaan. Menarik perhatian adalah, ragam hias jenis ini tidak ditemukan pada kepurbakalaan masa sebelumnya, yaitu masa Hindu-Buddha di Jawa Tengah (abad ke-6 sampai awal abad ke-10). Untuk mengetahui gagasan yang melatari dipilihnya artefak tersebut,
akan diterapkan metode arkeologi-sejarah, yaitu metode yang menggunakan data artefaktual dan data tekstual, berupa naskah-naskah atau prasasti. Kemunculan garuḍa bersama ular-naga ini, dikemukakan bahwa para seniman Jawa Kuno menggunakan cerita Samudramanthana (Amŗtamanthana) dan cerita Garuḍeya. Kedua cerita tersebut menceritakan pengambilan dan perebutan air suci amŗta (air suci, air penghidupan) antara dewa (śura) dan aśura. Ragam hias ular-naga terdapat pada Pemandian Jalatunda, Candi Kidal dan Candi Jabung, Candi Panataran, Candi Kedaton dan sebagainya. Dipilihnya cerita Samudramanthana dan Garuḍeya terkait dengan mitologi gunung dalam agama Hindu, yang
merupakan “tangga naik” ke tempat dewa-dewa di puncaknya. Candi adalah bentuk miniatur dari Mahameru tersebut, tempat amŗta yang dijaga oleh ular-naga.


Keywords


Ksirārnawa (Lautan Susu), Kāla-Naga, Matīrtha, Cakra

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/amt.v33i2.217
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