The Vedic Religion In Nusantara*

Hariani Santiko Santiko

Abstract


Abstract. The seafaring traders from India as well as from Southeast Asia had an important role in spreading the Indian religions to Nusantara. The brahmins were invited by the local rulers to legitimize their new status and doing rituals for them. For instance, according to the yūpa-inscriptions from the 4th century AD, King Mūlavarman from Kutei, Muarakaman, East-Kalimantan was doing meritorious works (punya-), by giving donations in the sacrificial offerings (the yajñas) performed at a punyatama. ksetra known as Vaprakeśvara. These yajñas were done by the vipras (a kind of brahmins) who came to Kalimantan from many places. By comparing the archaeological data with the written sources, i.e. the Sanskrit inscriptions, we are able to formulate that the Vedic religion was the earliest Indian religion embraced by the rulers in Nusantara. At least 3 kings had invited the brahmins to do the Vedic–yajñas, i.e. king Mūlavarman (from the 4th century), king Pūrnavarman from Tārumanagara (in the 5th century), and King Gajayana from Kanjuruhan, East Java (in the 7th century). The last mentioned king, actually converted to Sivaism (the Hindu-Saiva), but he invited the Vedic priests to do the Vedic yajña. The Vedic rituals probably were also done in Kota Kapur, Bangka. The remains of the Vedic altars, fragments of Visnu statue and other finds were found at that site.

 

Abstrak. Agama Weda di Nusantara. Pedagang-pedagang yang berlayar dari India dan Asia Tenggara berperanan penting dalam menyebarkan agama-agama India di Nusantara. Para brahmin diundang oleh penguasa-penguasa lokal untuk melegitimasi status baru mereka dan melaksanakan upacara-upacara bagi mereka. Misalnya, menurut sejumlah prasasti yūpa dari abad ke-4 Masehi, Raja Mūlavarman dari Kutai, Muarakaman, Kalimantan Timur, melakukan pekerjaan-pekerjaan mulia (punya-), dengan memberi sumbangan pada persembahan kurban (yajña) yang dilakukan di suatu punyatama. ksetra yang dikenal dengan nama Vaprakeśvara. Yajñas- yajña dilaksanakan oleh para vipra (semacam brahmin) yang datang ke Kalimantan dari berbagai tempat. Dengan membandingkan data arkeologis dan sumber-sumber tertulis, misalnya prasasti-prasasti berbahasa Sansekerta, kita dapat menyimpulkan bahwa agama Veda merupakan agama India pertama yang dianut oleh para penguasa di Nusantara. Setidaknya tiga raja telah mengundang para brahmin telah untuk melakukan yajña- yajña, misalnya Raja Mūlavarman (dari abad ke-4 Masehi), Raja Pūrnavarman dari Tārumanagara (pada abad ke-5 Masehi), dan Raja Gajayana dari Kanjuruhan, Jawa Timur (pada abad ke-7 Masehi). Raja yang disebutkan terakhir bahkan menganut Sivaisme (Hindu-Saiva), namun ia mengundang pendeta-pendeta Veda untuk melakukan yajña Veda. Ritual-ritual Veda mungkin dilakukan pula di Kota Kapur, Bangka. Tinggalan berupa altar-altar Veda, fragmen arca Visnu, dan temuan-temuan lain ditemukan di situs tersebut.


Keywords


Kampong Keling, Vedi, Vaprakeśvara, Barhis, Vipra, Gŗhyayajña, Śrautayajña, Yūpa

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bosch, F.D.K. 1961. Selected Studies in Indonesia Archaeology. The Hague: M.Nijhoff. Chhabra, B.Ch. 1949. “Three More Yūpa

Inscriptions of King Mulavarman from Kutei”, Tijdschrift voor de Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde (TBG) deel LXXXIII-afl.

: 370-74.

De Casparis, J.G. and Mabbet, I.W. 1992. “Religion and Popular Beliefs of Southeast Asia before c.1500” in Nicholas Tarling (Ed.). The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia, vol I: From Early times to c.1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

Irwin, John. 1980. “The Axial Symbolism of the Early Stupa: An Exegesis” in Anna Libera Dallapiccola (Ed.). The Stupa its

Religious, Historical and Architectural Significance. Wiesbaden: Frans Steiner Verslag.

Gonda, J. 1954. Aspects of Early Visnuism. London: Paul Hamlyn.

---------. 1985. The Ritual Functions and Significance of Grasses in the Religion of the Veda. Amsterdam-New York: Publishing Company.

Hopkins, J.Thomas. 1971. The Hindu Religious & Tradition, Belmont. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

MacDonell, Arthur Anthony. 1954. A Practical Sanskrit Dictionary. London: Oxford University Press.

Majumdar, R.C. 1960. An Advance History of India. London: Macmilland & Co.

Moens, J.L. 1940. “Was Poernavarman van Paroema een Saura?”. Tijdschrift voor de Taal-, Land-, en volkenkunde deel LXXVI vol. I: 80-109.

Nilakantha Sastri. 1936. “Agastya”, Tijdschrift voor de Taal-, Land-, en volkenkunde deel LXXVI: 41-545.

Poerbatjaraka, R.M. Ng. dan Tardjan Hadidjaja. 1952. Kepustakaan Djawa. Djakarta: Djambatan.

Radhakrishnan, S. 1958. Indian Philosophy,

vol. I. New York: The Macmilland & Co.

---------. 1971. A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. New York: The Macmilland & Co.

Santiko, Hariani. 2001. ”The Religion of King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara”, in Marijke Klokke (ed.), Fruits of Inspiration. Studies in Honour of Prof. J.G.de Casparis. Groningen: Egbert

Forstein.

---------. 1989. “Waprakeswara: Tempat Bersaji Pemeluk agama Veda?”, Amerta Berkala Arkeologi vol. 11: 1-8. Jakarta: Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Arkeologi Nasional.

Satari, Soejatmi. 2005. ”Upacara Veda di Jawa Timur”, makalah pada Pertemuan Ilmiah Akrkeologi (PIA). Yogyakarta.

Sumadio, Bambang (ed.). 1984. Sejarah Nasional II. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Thibaut, G. 1875. “On Sulva-sutra”, JASB XLIV, part 1. no. 1-4: 227-75.

Tri Marhaeni. l997. Laporan Penelitian Situs Kota Kapur, Kabupaten Bangka Selatan, Provinsi Sumatra Selatan. Palembang: Balai Arkeologi Palembang.

Van Leur, J.C. 1960. Indonesian Trade and Society. Bandung: Sumur Bandung.

Vogel, J.iPh. 1925. “The Earliest Sanskrit inscriptions of Java”, Publicaties van den Oudheidkundige Dienst in Ned. Indie.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/amt.v31i2.164
Article Metrics

Abstract views: 124 | PDF views: 167 | Total views: 291




Copyright (c) 2013 AMERTA

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

AMERTA INDEXED BY:

Copyright of AMERTA (e-ISSN 2549-8908 p-ISSN 0215-1324). Powered by OJS. ©Designed by Mujab.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.