Interaksi Regional dan Cikal Bakal Perdagangan Internasional di Maluku

Daud Aris Tanudirjo

Abstract


Abstrak. Sejarah telah mencatat peran penting Kepulauan Maluku dalam jejaring perdagangan internasional setidaknya sejak awal abad Masehi. Beberapa sumber sejarah kuno memberikan kesaksian keberadaan cengkeh di tempat-tempat yang jauh dari sumber tanaman endemik Maluku ini. Naturalis Romawi, sejarah Dinasti Han (abad 2 SM – 2 M), menuliskan tentang adanya rempah-rempah (cengkeh, chi-shé, ting-hsiang) yang didatangkan dari Mo-wu atau Maluku (Wolters, 1967). Jejaring perdagangan yang melibatkan Maluku memuncak sekitar abad ke-16 tidak lama setelah orang-orang Eropa mulai menjelajahi lautan untuk mencari “emas hijau” ini di tempat asalnya. Peran penting Maluku dalam jejaring perdagangan dunia adalah salah satu puncak proses evolusi budaya yang berakar dari interaksi regional yang telah terjadi sejak ribuan tahun sebelumnya. Makalah ini mencoba menelusuri kembali cikal bakal dan perjalanan panjang sejarah terbentuknya jejaring perdagangan internasional di kawasan Maluku ini. 


Abstract. Regional Interaction and the Dawn of International Trade in Moluccas. History has recorded the important role of Moluccas Islands in international trade network at least since early century CE. A number of old historical sources reveal the existence of cloves at places far from the sources of these endemic plants of the Moluccas. Roman naturalist, the history of the Han Dynasty (2nd century BCE – 2nd century CE), wrote about spices (cloves, chi-shé, tinghsiang) sent from Mo-wuor Moluccas (Wolters, 1967). The trade network that involved Moluccas reached its peak around 16th century CE, not long after the Europeans began to roam across the oceans in search of this “green gold” in its places of origin. The important role of the Moluccas in the global trade network is one of the pinnacles of cultural evolution process, which was rooted in regional interactions that happened since thousands of years previously. This paper attempts to retrace the embryo and long journey of the establishment of international trade network in the Moluccas region.


Keywords


Interaksi regional, Perdagangan, Maluku

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kpt.v22i1.99
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