The Structure of Stupas at Muara Jambi.

Hariani Santiko

Abstract


Struktur Stūpa di Muara Jambi. Di Muara Jambi dan sekitarnya terdapat tinggalan arkeologi berupa bangunan-bangunan sakral, di antaranya Candi Gumpung, Candi Tinggi, Candi Gedong I dan II, Candi Kedaton, dan Candi Astano yang dibuat dari bata. Tinggalan tersebut bersifat agama Buddha, karena banyak terdapat sisa-sisa bata dengan inskripsi “bija-mantra”, gambar-gambar bunga padmā, dan beberapa patung. Struktur bangunan-bangunan khususnya candi induk pada umumnya berdenah segiempat, dengan perpanjangan ke arah timur atau utara, perkecualian terdapat pada Candi Gumpung. Di atas candi induk tersebut kemungkinan diletakkan sebuah stūpa besar seperti Candi Tinggi. Struktur bangunan stūpa semacam itu dikenal sebagai “terrace-stūpa” yang pertama kali didapati di daerah Gandara pada masa pra-Kushana. Candi Gumpung berdenah hampir bujursangkar, tanpa tangga dan tanpa ruang dalam (garbhagŗha). Boechari pada tahun 1985 membaca inskripsi sebagai peripih candi dan berpendapat bahwa peripih berupa susunan dewa-dewa dalam Vajradhātu-maṇḍala, berarti Candi Gumpung bersifat agama Buddha Vajrayāna. Dengan demikian menurut penulis struktur pertama Candi Gumpung hanya berupa lapik dengan 5 buah stūpa di atasnya yang menggambarkan susunan Vajradhātu- maṇḍala. Dari berbagai data yang dilaporkan dan perbandingan dengan sisa-sisa bangunan di Muara Takus dan Biaro Bahal, penulis perkirakan bahwa tinggalan arkeologi di Muara Jambi adalah sisa-sisa bangunan stūpa, khususnya dalam bentuk “terrace-stūpa”.

 

Abstract. In the vicinity of Muara Jambi are found a lot of archaeological remains, among others a group of brick monuments believed to date from the 9th to 13th Century AD, among others are Candi Tinggi, Candi Gumpung, Candi Gedong I and II, Candi Kedaton, Candi Astano. These monuments are Buddhist, because the majority of the finds in this area are Buddhist statues, many bricks with “bija mantra” inscriptions and drawing such as padmā motives on them. The structures of the main temple, except Candi Gumpung, are generally square in plan with projecting portico on the east or north, and terrace platform that may well served for the enthronement of the big stūpa like the one at Candi Tinggi. The type of this stūpa structure is called the terrace- stūpa, known for the first time in the Gandhāran regions from pre-Kushana period. In Indonesia terrace-stūpas are found at Muara Takus (Candi Tua) and also candi Borobudur in Central Jawa. Candi Gumpung has different structure, a square ground plan measuring 18 x 18 metres without any trace of an inner-room (garbhagŗha). Boechari in 1985 read the inscriptions found in the deposit boxes found inside the temple floor. He recognized the plan of Vajradhātu-maṇḍala found in the base of candi Gumpung. It means that candi Gumpung is a Vajrayāna temple and it embodies the maṇḍala of the five Tathāgath as with Wairocana in the centre. So I assume that the first candi Gumpung in the 9-10th Century was a square platform with five stūpas on it to form the Vajradhātu-maṇḍala. By studying the archaeological data from Muara Jambi and comparing them with the monuments from Muara Takus and Biaro Bahal, I consider the remains of brick monuments at Muara Jambi belonged to stūpas, especially the terrace-stūpas.


Keywords


Vajradhātu-maṇḍala, Vajrayāna, Teras-stūpa

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kpt.v23i2.58
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