Manik-Manik Kaca Salah Satu Indikator Kejayaan Dan Keruntuhan Perniagaan Pulau Kampai.

Ery Soedewo

Abstract


Salah satu jejak masa lalu di Pulau Kampai yang jumlah dan jenisnya berlimpah adalah manik-manik kaca. Permasalahan pada tulisan ini adalah keterkaitan antara keberlimpahan objek tersebut dengan refleksi kondisi tertentu pada masa lalu di Pulau Kampai. Keberlimpahan data kemudian dianalisis secara morfologi dan dilihat kuantitasnya, sehingga menghasilkan ragam jenis dan gambaran fluktuasi yang merupakan refleksi kejayaan dan keruntuhan perniagaan Pulau Kampai di masa lalu. Penjelasan tentang faktor penyebab fluktuasi dicapai melalui analogi sumber-sumber historis, baik lokal maupun mancanegara. Kajian ini bertujuan menggambarkan fluktuasi perniagaan di Pulau Kampai yang terefleksikan lewat fluktuasi kuantitas manik-manik kacanya, sekaligus menjelaskan faktor penyebab keruntuhan dan kejayaan perniagaan kuna di Pulau Kampai. Kejayaan perniagaan pulau ini berlangsung antara abad ke-11 hingga pertengahan abad ke-14, salah satunya didorong oleh permintaan terhadap produk alam Sumatera oleh pasar Tiongkok sejak masa Dinasti Sung. Keruntuhannya bermula sejak kekuasaan Dinasti Ming membatasi pengusaha swasta dalam perdagangan lintas samudera mulai abad ke-15, yang berakibat pada menurunnya permintaan terhadap produk alam Sumatera. Peran Kampai dalam perniagaan akhirnya mencapai titik terbawah pada abad ke-16 ketika bandar-bandar lain di Sumatera menjadi tempat dijualnya komoditi ekspor yang dihasilkan oleh Aru.

 

Abstract. Kampai Island’s past traces include the abundant varied glass beads. Was such abundant glass beads reflects certain conditions on ancient Kampai Island? Such richness in number and variety have triggered a number of researches on their quantity and morphology which provide some information of categorization and trade fluctuation in the ancient Kampai Island. The factors contributing to the rise and fall of the island are explained through the analogy of local or international historical sources. Kampai’s heyday through AD 11 to the middle of AD 14 centuries was among others due to demand on Sumatera’s natural resources by the Chinese market since the Tang Dynasty’s period; on the other hand, the Ming Dynasty’s AD 15 century inter-ocean private trade quota limitation contributed to the decline of such resources demand. The declining demand finally brought Kampai’s commerce to collapse at AD 16 century when other Sumatera’s ports began to export Aru’s commodity.


Keywords


Manik kaca, Kejayaan, Keruntuhan, Perniagaan, Pulau Kampai.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kpt.v24i2.40
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