Hasil Analisis Mikrofosil Tumbuhan (phytolith) Situs Wineki dan Padang Hadoa, di Kawasan Lembah Besoa, Sulawesi Tengah.

rooseline linda octina

Abstract


Phytoliths are plant microfossil made of silica that varies in shape and size. Variations of form happen when silica in soil is absorbed by plants then transported and deposited in various parts of plant cells. When the plant dies, the plant's organic matter decomposes and leaves the inorganic material of silica, which we know by the name of phytoliths. Silica can survive in various environmental conditions, That’s make phytoliths are important data for scientific research including archeology. Phytoliths analysis on soil samples from prehistoric  Besoa Valley’s site aimed to reveal past environmental conditions and also find out the possibility of an economical plant utilization. Extraction performed on 18 soil samples from Wineki (box K1) and the Padang Hadoa sites (box K2 and K3). Techniques were performed using Sodium Polytungstate heavy flotation. Phytoliths identification results reveal palmae plants dominate the entire site, other phytolith derived from sample are Poaeceae, Cyperaceae and also two types of economic plants Oryza and Musaceae. Difference vegetation on past (dominated by palm) and current conditions (dominated by grasses)can indicate their changing environmental conditions either due to natural or due to human intervention. The existence of Oryza and Musaceae in Padang Hadoa sites can be an indication of the use by Padang Hadoa’s prehistoric occupant.

Keyword : phytolith, Besoa Valley, Oryza, Musaceae

 

 

Phytoliths merupakan mikrofosil tumbuhan berbahan silica yang bervariasi secara bentuk dan ukuran. Variasi bentuk phytolith terjadi ketika silica dalam tanah terserap oleh tumbuhan kemudian terangkut dan terdeposisi pada bermacam bagian sel tumbuhan. Ketika tumbuhan mati, material organic tumbuhan membusuk dan meninggalkan material anorganik berupa silica yang kemudian kita kenal dengan nama phytoliths. Sifat silica yang dapat terawetkan diberbagai kondisi lingkungan menjadikan phytoliths data penting bagi penelitian ilmiah termasuk bagi arkeologi. Analisis phytoliths pada sampel tanah dari kawasan prasejarah Lembah Besoa ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan kondisi lingkungan masa lalu dan juga mengetahui kemungkinan adanya pemanfaatan tumbuhan. Ekstraksi dilakukan pada 18 sampel tanah dari Wineki ( kotak K1 ) dan situs Padang Hadoa ( kotak K2 dan K3 ). Teknik yang dilakukan yakni dengan pengambangan menggunakan mineral berat Sodium Polytungstate. Hasil identifikasi mengungkapkan tumbuhan jenis palem mendominasi seluruh situs dibandingkan dengan jenis tumbuhan lain. Jenis tumbuhan lain yang dapat diidentifikasi dari sampel yaitu jenis   Poaeceae, Cyperaceae dan juga dua jenis tumbuhan ekonomis Oryza dan Musaceae. Perbedaan vegetasi di masa lalu (yang didominasi oleh palem) dan kondisi saat ini (didominasi oleh rumput ) dapat menunjukkan adanya perubahan kondisi lingkungan baik karena alam atau karena campur tangan manusia. Keberadaan Oryza dan Musaceae di situs Padang Hadoa dapat menjadi indikasi adanya pemanfaatan jenis tumbuhan tersebut oleh manusia pendukung situs Padang Hadoa ini.

Kata kunci: phytolith, Lembah Besoa, Oryza, Musaceae


Keywords


phytolith, Besoa Valley, Oryza, Musaceae

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24832/kpt.v26i2.317
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